Generally, knowledge and information on genetic diversity of various life-forms and organisms existing in Ghana are diffused, incomplete and inaccurate. However, the amount of information available on the terrestrial ecosystems is greater and more complete than that of the marine and other aquatic systems. Furthermore, there is a fair to good knowledge and information base on the species diversity of plants and animals (both wild and domesticated) and ecological processes within the terrestrial habitats. In contrast, information on plants and animals of the marine and aquatic environment and the processes that determine the resilience of such organisms is barely available. Currently, very little is known about the entire microbial diversity of terrestrial, marine and aquatic ecosystems in the country.
The benefits of plant, animal and microbial biodiversity to the people of Ghana are enormous. These ranges from economic (source of rural and urban income, export earnings), social (as sources of food and food security, medicine for health maintenance and cure of diseases and ailments), religious and cultural (avenue for spiritual inspiration), aesthetic and recreational to ecological (watershed and catchment area protection, wind/storm break, forest regeneration, soil fertility maintenance, etc.) and environmental (maintenance of atmospheric carbon levels, absorption of pollutants, etc.).