The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), to which Ghana became a signatory in 1992, and other Multilateral International Environmental Agreements enjoin signatory Parties to develop strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. In this regard, there has been a Biodiversity Country Study for Ghana. a National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) and a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Both in situ (use of both traditional and scientific methods - sacred groves and protected areas), and ex situ (gene banks. zoological and botanical gardens) approaches have been used in biodiversity conservation in Ghana. The effectiveness ofthe former has, however, diminished in recenttimes because ofrapid population growth, urbanization, human migration and resettlement, influence of western technology, foreign religions and beliefs, human encroachment, deforestation, poaching, etc. Ghana's environmental conservation initiatives hold quite promising prospects, especially with the current collaboration between local traditional authorities, NGOs, government institutions, academic and research institutions, and the realization that more flexible multidisciplinary and holistic approaches to biodiversity conservation are more likely to yield betterresults. The main objective of biodiversity conservation is to ensure that the use of biological resources does not diminish the variety of genes and species, or destroy important habitats and ecosystems worldwide. The major problem facing biodiversity conservation in Ghana today is the rapid population growth and its resultant urbanization, over-exploitation of forests, need for more agricultural land, etc. The current situation needs a serious appraisal of national population programmes, especially in the areas of implementation and censusing, as well as initiation ofenvironmental awareness campaigns involving stakeholders like environmental NG Os, governmental organizations, District Assemblies, traditional authorities, and the mass media. Poverty alleviation programmes targeted especially at rural communities are also steps in the right direction.