Wetlands are widely distributed over the entire country covering about 10% of the total land surface in Ghana.
Wetlands are distributed extensively all over Ghana and are important for their fundamental ecological functions and their socio-economic benefits. Wetlands are closely associated with the numerous inland fresh water and coastal marine systems in the country. The interface between the fresh water and marine ecosystem is the coastal lagoon systems and mangroves. There are also upland wetlands which are rather rare and limited in their occurrence.
There are numerous marine and brackish wetlands along the entire 500km coastline of Ghana. These include the Keta Lagoon Complex, Songhor, Sakumo, Muni lagoons and the Densu Delta which have been designated as Ramsar Sites in view of their national and international importance for fishing and as over-wintering grounds for several paleartic migratory waterbirds. Other important wetlands include the Amanzuri, Ehulu, Korle, Kpeshie, Butre, Fosu lagoons as well as Ankobra and Whin estuaries.
Freshwater wetlands in Ghana are important for agriculture, water supply and recreation and other ecosystem services. This notwithstanding, they have not been adequately documented. The Owabi Wildlife Sanctuary is the only inland Ramsar Site in Ghana. Upland wetlands are rather rare ecosystem with very limited occurrence in Ghana. This is usually a marshy area at high altitudes and usually constitutes the source of rivers and streams. A good example of upland wetland in Ghana is a relatively small marshy area at the crest of one of the peaks in the Atewa Range Forest Reserve.