Flora in Ghana
The flora in Ghana is made up of both indigenous and exotic species. This file provides information on both.
Both indigenous and introduced species have been considered in the assessments of the country’s floral diversity. A total of some 3,600 species of the major regional centres of endemism (White, 1965) represent the three major taxonomic groups. Floral diversity is more pronounced among the angiosperms represented with well over 2,974 indigenous and 253 introduced species. Among the various vegetation types of the tropical rain forest, it is the wet evergreen forest type in the southwestern part of the country that exhibits the highest level of endemism and species richness.
Information on species diversity and endemism in the savanna biomes is very sparse. Biological diversity of species in the savanna woodlands and gallery forests of the savannas may show greater species richness than the dry savannas.
Within Ghana there are areas of high biological diversity, referred to as “biological hotspots”. The most notable of such areas is the Ankasa and Nini-Suhien Conservation Area in the southwestern portion of Ghana (CI, 2002). The apparent climatic diversity is greater here. In West Africa, the Upper Guinea Forest Ecosystems is also recognized as one of the 25 global biodiversity hotspots. This is attributed to the fact that even though there is a very high concentration of biological diversity, the entire area has lost about 80% of the original forest cover and the remnants continued to be threatened with destruction.
There is only one known gymnosperm, Encephalartos barteri, which is indigenous to Ghana. The few others growing in various ecological zones in the country are introduced species for purposes including aesthetics and economic. The third taxonomic group, pteridophytes, is well represented with 124 known species.